Predictive modelling is applying existing knowledge about a target user, task and environment (UTE); accessed through both generic and specific databases and design guides.
There are many such modelling databases that often include descriptions of research methods by which the data may be updated. Paper-based tool and databases include User-fit (Poulson 1995) and Inclusive guidelines (Keates and Clarkson 2003). Computer based predictive modelling has also been developed to enable more intuitive use. The Inclusive Design Tool Kit (Engineering Design Centre 2010), an internet data-base and methods guide is an intermediate to the software based analysis tools shown in USER-fit. Generic anthropometric databases, such as PEOPLEsize (Open Ergonomics 2015), support specific guidelines and tools. Software tools such as SAMMIE (Loughborough University 2010) provide physical ergonomics-based data, mainly for spatial accessibility and usability, the specification for which is imported into the software. HADRIAN (Porter 2004) is an advance on the anthropometric-based design tools and databases such that it integrates the best of these elements. The software provides an information-rich interface for performance information collected from real people with defined medical conditions. Other Chapters in this book provide more in-depth detail about SAMMIE and HADRIAN.
Whilst these databases provide a very useful starting point to gain empathy with a target user, they are limited in the number of components they capture. An advantage that systems such as Hadrian have is that they enable a cost-effective way for designers to match a target market with a clear population size and associated characteristics envelope.
Keates, S., and P. J. Clarkson. 2003. Countering design exclusion through inclusive design. SIGCAPH NEWSLETTER: 69-76.
Open Ergonomics Ltd. 2015, (online). PeopleSize 2008, Available at: (http://www.openerg.com/psz/index.html). Accessed [23/09/2015].
Porter, J. M., Case , K., Marshall, R., Gyi, D., and Oliver-Sims, R., 2004. Beyond Jack and Jill: Designing for individuals using HADRIAN. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics 33, (3), Elsevier, London. pp249-64.
Torrens, GE (2011) Universal Design: empathy and affinity. In Karwowski, W, Soares, M, M, Stanton, A, N, Eds, (ed) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Consumer Products, CRC Press, pp.233-248 Available at: (http://www.crcnetbase.com/doi/abs/10.1201/b10950-19), Accessed: [23/09/015]
Torrens, G.E., 2012. Assistive Technology product to Universal design: A way forward, Design For All India, 7 (7), pp.182-205 Available at: (https://dspace.lboro.ac.uk/dspace-jspui/handle/2134/15736), Accessed:[23/09/2015]