Grounded theory

A grounded theory approach (Creswell 2009) is a participatory approach to gaining consensus of opinion within a group of experts. In this field, the experts may be consultant surgeons, general practitioners, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, bioengineers, social workers, NGO and charitable budget holders. Each group will have a different perspective on the balance of the product design specification (PDS) and realised product.

A derivative of grounded theory is Delphi method. (Cohen 2007) This method involves remote communication between the research operator and individual experts, via questionnaire and given tasks, to arrive at a consensus achieved in grounded theory. This method enables the closest approximation of a face-to-face discussion with multiple participants without using a Focus group strategy. (Morgan 1997, Langford 2003)

Useful links

Cohen, L. Mannion, L., Morrison K. 2007. Research methods in education. 6th ed. London, New York: Routledge.Langford, J., McDonagh, D., 2003.

Focus groups supporting effective product development. Taylor & Francis, London.
Morgan, D.L., 1997, Focus groups as qualitative research, second edition, qualitative research methods series 16, Sage, London

Torrens, GE (2011) Universal Design: empathy and affinity. In Karwowski, W, Soares, M, M, Stanton, A, N, Eds, (ed) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Consumer Products, CRC Press, pp.233-248 Available at: (, Accessed: [23/09/015]

Torrens, G.E., 2012. Assistive Technology product to Universal design: A way forward, Design For All India, 7 (7), pp.182-205 Available at: (, Accessed:[23/09/2015]

Wilson, J. R., and E. N. Corlett. 1995. Evaluation of human work: A practical ergonomics methodology. 2nd ed. London: Taylor & Francis.