User Experience Prototyping

User experience or UX has developed from human computer and human system interaction. The origins of the term are with Donald Norman and effective usability, but now apply to many areas of computing technology applications within society.

The interpretation and evaluation of UX is within usability evaluation and design ergonomics. The key elements of user requirement and aspirations for an AT product or service may be found in usability evaluation, market analysis and persona definition.

The language of UX is product semantics and its evaluation is through usability related methods. Matching the expectation to the AT design outcome is a critical part of UX. This topic is also closely aligned with service design and design thinking.

Useful links

Barnes, C., 1995. Disability rights: rhetoric and reality in the UK. Disability & Society, 10, (1). pp. 111-116.

Cohen, L., L.Mannion, and K.Morrison 2007. Research methods in education. 6th ed. London, New York: Routledge.

Creswell, J.W. and Plano-Clark, V.L., 2006. Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Sage, London.

Fuhruer, M.J., Utai, J.W., Scherer, M.J., 2003. A framework for the conceptual modelling of assistive technology device outcomes, Disability and Rehabilitation, (25), 22, Informa PLC, London. pp1243-1251

Krippendorff, K., 2006. The semantics turn: a new foundation for design,CRC Press, Boca Raton.

Norman, D. 1988. Psychology of everyday things, Basic Books, New York.

Philips, B., 1993. Predictors of Assistive Technology Abandonment, Assistive Technology: The official journal of RESNA, (5), 1. Taylor and Francis, New York.

Langford, J., McDonagh, D., 2003. Focus groups supporting effective product development. Taylor & Francis, London.

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., Butler, J., 2003. Universal principles of design: 100 ways to enhance usability, influence perception, increase appeal, make better design decisions, and teach through design, Rockport, Gloucester.

Martin, B., Hanington, B., 2012. Universal methods of design: 100 ways to research complex problems, develop innovative ideas, and design effective solutions, Rockport, Beverly.

Poulson D, Ashby M and Richardson SJ (eds.) (1996) USERfit. A practical handbook on user centred design for assistive technology. HUSAT Research Institute for the European Commission. Available from: ( Accessed: [23/09/2015]

Torrens, G.E., 2012. Assistive Technology product to Universal design: A way forward, Design For All India, 7 (7), pp.182-205 Available at: (, Accessed:[23/09/2015]

Torrens, GE, 2011. Universal Design: empathy and affinity. In Karwowski, W, Soares, M, M, Stanton, A, N, Eds, (ed) Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics in Consumer Products, CRC Press, pp.233-248 Available at: (, Accessed: [7/11/2015]